Bad Ischl, Austria
Xu Yedan   Apr 30.2016


General information:Bad Ischl is situated in central Austria and is also the centre of the region of Salzkammergut, which covers parts of the administrative provinces of Oberösterreich, Salzburg and Steiermark. The community of Bad Ischl consists of many settlement areas of different sizes. All parts of the town have existed since the first census in 1869. The number of inhabitants in 2001 was just over 14,000, after a gradual population increase since 1971.

Reason to Be Selected

The Austrian part of the ECOCITY project intends to make a contribution to overcoming the general trend of (urban) sprawl through a vision for concentrated settlement development (especially in the area around small towns) and to thereby provide better conditions for public transport. This will be initiated by concentrating building around the planned light-rail stop in the ECOCITY area and, step by step, around all the other stops on the planned public transport route (thus also extending existing neighbourhoods). The project will focus on a balanced proportion of housing and workplaces to promote an equal distribution of passengers in both directions.


The planning area consists of the following elements:

• Part 1: the ECOCITY subcentre (Robinson area) is the main component of the project; this quarter will provide infrastructure for the daily needs of the new inhabitants as well as for the existing under-supplied neighbourhoods.In walking distance from the ECOCITY subcentre there are two additional small developments:

• Part 2: the ECOCITY light industrial estate (Aschau/Ramsau) is a small area which will be developed mono-functionally (but in co-ordination with the ECOCITY subcentre) through the addition of new small and medium-sized industrial enterprises to the few existing ones (the new businesses should preferably have an ecologically compatible focus).

• Part 3: in-fill development 'Neuner area' (Krenlehner Siedlung) is a small area which is to be developed to increase the density of a 'sprawl' settlement by adding a small, mainly residential area in higher density, low-rise types of building.


Project description:The site was selected to intensify the axial development between the centre of the town of Bad Ischl and the neighbouring communities of Strobl and St. Wolfgang – this is promoted by the situation in a valley. The demand and potential for public transport should be improved through the project. The project area comprises 24.6 hectares and is planned to attract about 2,100 new inhabitants.
Urban structure:The ECOCITY quarter is planned around a mixed-use core, designed within a 300-m radius around the central light rail stop. A qualified density (gross floor area ratio12) for the subcentre: 0.73) is achieved through multi-storey, residential and business buildings with the highest density around the rail stop. The maximum height of the buildings is harmonised with that found in the historic centre of Bad Ischl (three to four storeys) and decreases towards the edge to two-storey terraced houses.

A main central axis was created to provide quick access from the largely residential buildings along a network of paths crossing the axis to the facilities in the central area. The north-south orientation of the main axis allows the buildings to be positioned for optimal active and passive use of solar energy (solar architecture). It also facilitates a view of the mountain tops (the dominant landscape feature), as well as direct access to meadows and forests in the north and south.


Compared to 1992, the modal share of individual motorised transport in Bad Ischl in 2001 increased significantly (from 50% to 58.3%), while walking decreased (from 30% to 22.9%) - as did cycling (from 9.9% to 8.8%). Only in public transport was there a slight increase (from 9.5 to 9.9%), which may have been achieved by the implementation of a city bus route. The proportion of the working population which both lives and works in Bad Ischl is 72.2%; therefore the volume of commuters in Bad Ischl is relatively low.

To improve the percentage use of sustainable transport, an integrated system of public transport is planned. This system includes regional rail, superior local public transport, regional and local buses and demand-responsive transport services. The superior local public transport (light rail or new technologies like cable liners or other people movers) will connect the ECOCITY with the town centre of Bad Ischl and the Wolfgangsee lake (in the village of Strobl). Until the realisation of this link (during the initial implementation phases) the ECOCITY will be connected to the centre of Bad Ischl and the rest of the region by a bus route. The demand-responsive transport services (fixed-route taxi) already connecting all areas will be improved.

Energy supply and material flows

The ECOCITY site lies in a forested, mountainous region. Biomass is available from several saw mills located in the surrounding area as well as from other sources and is therefore an attractive option for heating and possibly electricity supply in the ECOCITY. Being located in an east-west-oriented valley, the site is well suited for the use of solar energy – only in December is the sunlight blocked out most of the time by the mountains. Several heat supply and heat delivery systems are possible for the ECOCITY. One option is a central biomass heating station with a district heating network with or without a natural gas peak load boiler.Another possibility is a central gas combined heat and power (CHP) station scaled for summer heat load, with additional biomass heating boilers for demand in winter time as well as decentralised systems for passive houses.

For material flows, two sets of measures are planned. First, sustainable use of water will be supported through decentralised rainwater management (including green roofs and rainwater storage tanks for non-drinking water purposes) and semi-permeable pathway surfaces and infiltration systems for the overflows (percolation fields, permeable drains and infiltration ponds). Secondly, to facilitate re-use of building materials a 'material accounting system' (building inventory) will be established with a database which lists the quantity and quality of the assembled building materials. The excavated soil will be re-used on site, e.g. for landscaping.


For the economic infrastructure of the ECOCITY, sufficient floor area is provided to accommodate local supply facilities for the inhabitants, as well as a variety of offices and small companies (compatible with a residential area). Together these provide a number of jobs in balance with the human resources of the ECOCITY. The model settlement should also be an additional attraction for a new type of 'ecological' tourism in Bad Ischl and the region.

Social targets used as a guideline when planning the Bad Ischl ECOCITY include a balanced social mix (in terms of education, age, income, ethnicity and sex), correspondent to the local population picture and the new trends in society. These targets also incorporate gender and lifestyle-sensitive planning (promoting a sustainable lifestyle) as well as diversity in housing and spatial structures to create a lively local neighbourhood, with self-organisation of residents to take on joint tasks and social networks which promote communication. A number of different measures are used to achieve this. Housing and other facilities are provided for a variety of generations and social and ethnic groups (including an innovative and accessible social infrastructure). In addition, mixed forms of property ownership and tenancy are available (rental, hire-purchase agreement and owner-occupation, as well as 'Baugruppen' – groups of future building owners with specific lifestyle and housing concepts who develop and build their homes together).


Lat: 47.7078
Lng: 13.6162
Region: Europe
Scale: District
Field: Infrastructure
City: Bad Ischl